Jail time. Net Neutrality Take 1.
The big cloud. Apple announces the iPhone. Nortel dies. Big mobile. Big Apple. IBM Watson wins at Jeopardy! Apple IPad introduced. IBM hits Steve Jobs died. Raspberry Pi. The Snowden files. Sony hack. Apple watch.
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Net Neutrality. Scary AI. Share this Slideshow. Direct link:. The spectacular and the burn-out The tech industry mirrors what goes on in regular society — people and companies rise in power one year only to fade away the next. First Internet worm In a move that would launch an entire industry of computer security products and malware, the first Internet worm was launched on Nov. The Cisco Machine Cisco went public in and pretty much has never looked back. Linux play At the height of the popularity of the Unix operating system a variant known as Linux came along courtesy of Finnish student, Linus Torvalds.
E-commerce Many say true, secure e-commerce really took off after Netscape released its Navigator browser with SSL encryption in October of Google it Google began as many fledgling companies do, as an idea born in a university setting. Telecom reform After years of lobbying and posturing, Congress finally rewrites the year-old law that controlled - some say hamstrung - the network industry, wrote Network World at the time.
Machine In a highly publicized game of chess skills, Garry Kasparov became the first world champion to lose a match to a computer under standard time controls, when he lost to the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue. Not so sweet Melissa According to Network World: It was Friday, March 26, when Melissa first began to bring corporate and government e-mail systems to their knees. Facebook The Facebook was launched in by Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes and has become another one of those college-projects-turned-huge business success. Net Neutrality Take 1 The notion that all Internet traffic should be treated equally is at the heart of what is known as Net neutrality.
The big cloud Amazon launched its Amazon Web Services package on Amazon S3 in March changing how companies store and manage all manner of data. Apple announces the iPhone Angry Birds everywhere rejoiced. Nortel dies In one of the more shocking bankruptcies out of a long line of them, Nortel filed for protection from creditors in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, in order to restructure its debt and financial obligations on Jan.
Big mobile Mobile data traffic has more than doubled in each of the past three years, Cisco said in Big Apple On May 26, Apple became the world's largest technology company as measured by the total value of its shares. Stuxnet Some call Stuxnet the first known cyber weapon. Apple IPad introduced Since its was introduced on April 3, the diminutive computer has never looked back with Apple selling over million of the devices through January IBM hits How much more iconic can you get?
Steve Jobs died Few news items have dominated the tech world like the day that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs died. Raspberry Pi Definitely a case of the little computer that could. Heartbleed In April of researchers uncovered a security bug in OpenSLL dubbed Heartbleed , which could let hackers steal tons of information without leaving a trace.
Sony hack The U. Apple watch It remains to be seen how much of an impact the Apple Watch will have on the industry in the long run. Net Neutrality FCC issues Net Neutrality decision: The core issues behind the concept of Net neutrality is how to keep the Internet from becoming the playground for only those who have money, and yet keep it competitive enough for the world to continue to develop applications and business around it. Scary AI Within a span of a few weeks, three of the most respected people in the big-thoughts, high-tech community expressed concern about the future development of artificial intelligence.
Next Up: Check out these related slideshows. Hot products at VMworld Celebrating our 30th anniversary. The networked world. Currently reading. The most momentous tech events of the past 30 years. Network World celebrates 30 years. Thumbing through issue No. This principle sought to reframe the debate over humanitarian intervention in terms of state sovereignty. Specifically, it placed the primary responsibility on states to protect their own citizens. When states failed, responsibility would fall to the international community. The latter also included an emphasis on the importance of capacity-building assistance to help states meet their R2P obligations.
Sudan has also served as a bellwether for international for the international community's capacity to respond to instances of atrocities. In , in response to the depredations of government-backed janjaweed forces against the inhabitants of Darfur, the United States issued a legal determination that genocide had been committed.
Rape of women venturing outside camps for the internally displaced, however, continued long after the UN became involved. A combined UN and African Union peacekeeping force was also established to help mitigate the violence.
In , the ICC indicted Bashir, but had neither the means to apprehend him nor the leverage to facilitate his capture. In short, the international community has taken its greatest step by redefining sovereignty as answerable to legal international intervention should a state fail to shield its citizens from atrocities, or worse yet, sponsor them. However, state practice has not matched these norms, and it remains to be seen whether consensus about Libya was sui generis. The escalating conflict in Syria, in which over sixty thousand have been killed since March , underscores the fact that, in reality, political concerns of the P5 often trump the doctrine of R2P.
Political and civil rights: disproportionately institutionalized, backlash on free expression and association. Treaties that define political and civil liberties are widely ratified, but many countries have not signed on to enforcement protocols, and many continue to violate the rights of their citizens regardless of treaties. In addition, the right of people to choose their leaders and freedom of the press, religion, and association has backslid in recent years.
At the same time, however, people are increasingly demanding rights and attempting to bypass repression of illiberal regimes. New technology such as cell phones, social media, and satellite television is also providing unprecedented opportunities to publicize abuse and organize protests, though repressive regimes are closely following with practices to censor new technology.
States resisting the spread of political and civil liberties have been challenged more by civil society than by other states or by intergovernmental organizations IGOs. Using information and communications technology, and with the support of global nongovernmental organizations NGOs and occasionally the private sector, civil society has taken their demands to a new level. China's effort to control dissent, for example, has been greatly challenged by Uighur dissenters in Xinjiang, Falun Gong groups, and the decision by Google to refuse to implement comprehensive censorship in China. However, international pressure remains relevant.
For example, the Obama administration's recent statement that censorship practices in China may violate World Trade Organization rules has increased pressure on China to reform. In the United Nations, the number of member states, organs, and generic mandates related to freedom of expression and association have increased. For instance, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution in calling for the end of capital punishment.
This occurred in the wake of a multiyear backlash [PDF] against domestic NGOs and their international philanthropic and civil society backers in a series of autocracies. Nonetheless, analysis has documented a five-year backslide in levels of democratic governance and other civil political liberties worldwide.pamuvanne.gq
Cyber Security and the Internet of Things: Vulnerabilities, Threats, Intruders and Attacks
The latter, which attempts to ban the death penalty, has only seventy-three parties. Another more recent accord, the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearances, came into force in , but has not been ratified by states most commonly charged with executing such disappearances, including Russia and China. Attacks on journalists have also increased, especially as the Arab Spring swept through the Middle East and North Africa. And even as individuals and civic organizations have used social media and other online tools to exchange ideas and press their cause, authoritarian governments have taken advantage of the same technology to halt or reverse gains in freedom of expression.
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Muslim-majority states have proposed resolutions to stem the "defamation" of religion. Such measures, though, were in many instances perceived by Western powers and rights groups as licenses to permit states to punish cases of so-called religious blasphemy, and had the potential to dramatically limit freedom of speech. During the spring of , the UNHRC shifted from the annual tradition of passing the controversial defamation of religion resolutions to adopt a more authentically robust freedom of religion formula.
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The new balance, focusing on religious tolerance , was largely due to a compromise the United States struck with the Organization of the Islamic Conference, since renamed the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. As a whole, although a large number of states continue to disregard or even retard the protection of political and civil liberties, expanding efforts on the ground and in multilateral bodies may prove most significant in the long term.
Economic rights and business responsibilities: increased corporate focus and engagement. A long-standing debate between the global North and global South has been over whether to prioritize negative obligations of states to avoid restricting political and civil liberties or positive obligations to deliver economic and social benefits. Indicators, however, show a subtle yet important shift in the last ten of the forty-year debate. Until the end of the twentieth century, international law frameworks placed human rights obligations on the shoulders of states.
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